Motorists must be given better information: General information on safety and how to behave in tunnels and more specific information on the safety equipment and facilities provided in the tunnel in question (lay-bys, emergency phones, fire extinguishers, emergency exits and similar equipment).
Orientation in the tunnel should be improved with bright tunnel walls, sufficient lighting and LEDs on the edge of the carriageway.
When driving through the tunnel, motorists should be instructed to keep a safe distance from other vehicles.
Motorists should be informed of why the tunnel is closed, for example, using variable traffic signs or variable information signs. Detour routes should be communicated in good time.
Escape routes and emergency exits should be clearly marked.
Hazardous goods should only be transported following registration, and should be escorted, at a sufficiently safe distance or during low-peak times.
The safety of the tunnel should be checked by independent experts.
To be implemented in the medium to long term within two to ten years:
Traffic standstills, for instance due to congestion or road works, particularly in tunnels with heavy traffic, should be avoided by suitable means of traffic management.
Communication must be improved: Traffic radio must be available throughout the tunnel. The feeding of messages into traffic radio should be a standard feature with standardised messages in several languages used for different situations (accident, closure, fire). Loudspeakers should be installed at clearly visible points, e.g. in lay-bys and cross-connections between neighbouring tubes. Emergency phones should be provided at sufficiently short intervals. Tunnel radio must be warranted for rescue services throughout the tunnel.
Video surveillance should be improved: Distances between cameras should be reduced; the camera image should be automatically displayed on an alarm monitor; automatic recording and saving of data.
Ventilation systems must be checked with regard to fire incidents and brought up to today's standard.
Lay-bys / emergency bays must be provided at short intervals in all tunnels where no emergency lane is provided.
All tunnels that are longer than 1,000 metres should be equipped with automatic fire alarm systems. Fire detection should be improved, for example, using combined systems (thermal line detectors and visibility impairment equipment installed at certain points or digital video image evaluation).
Escape routes must be marked, for example, with LEDs, so that they remain visible even when there is smoke in the tunnel.
Existing escape chambers must be connected to external escape routes.
Escape and rescue routes must be created: Additional galleries must be built, openings must be made to an existing, second tube at short distances, existing supply-air ducts should be converted for use as additional escape routes.
Fire brigade equipment must be improved and training should take place under realistic conditions (when possible "hot" training in suitable training tunnels).
Tunnel control centres should be set up and manned by trained staff.
Safety officers must be put in charge of the following tasks:
Regular training for personnel and emergency services
Regular emergency drills with all the rescue services
Evaluation of incidents, accidents and fires
Tunnels with one tube should be fitted with a second tube
The requirements and regulations of the EU Directive on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the Trans-European Road Network must be implemented promptly, thus ensuring in the near future a standardised minimum safety level for Europe's road tunnels.